Otroci kot prenašalci okužb

Otroci ravno tako lahko zbolijo za COVID-19 kot ljudje iz ostalih starostnih skupin. Potek je pri njih velikokrat asimptomatski. Vprašanje je, ali otroci okužbo prenašajo naprej ali ne. Na to temo obstaja veliko člankov. Eni govorijo v smeri, da otroci so prenašalci, drugi pa da otroci niso pomembni prenašalci okužb. Tu spodaj navajam nekaj raziskav na to temo, s čisto praktičnega gledišča pa dodajam moje opažanje, da je bilo v državah manj okužb v času, ko ni bilo pouka, kot v času, ko je pouk potekal normalno.

Otroci so prenašalci

* ALL: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/12/15/science.abd9338
December 15, 2020
Closing all educational institutions, limiting gatherings to 10 people or less, and closing face-to-face businesses each reduced transmission considerably. The additional effect of stay-at-home orders was comparatively small.

* UK: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/948617/s0998-tfc-update-to-4-november-2020-paper-on-children-schools-transmission.pdf
December 17, 2020
Overall, accumulating evidence is consistent with increased transmission occurring amongst school children when schools are open, particularly in children of secondary school age (high confidence): multiple data sources show a reduction in transmission in children following schools closing for half term, and transmission rates increasing again following the post-half term return to school

* ICE: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/12/we-now-know-how-much-children-spread-coronavirus/
December 10, 2020
Kids catch and spread coronavirus half as much as adults, Iceland study confirms

* https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30785-4/fulltext
October 22, 2020
The temporal association of introducing and lifting non-pharmaceutical interventions with the time-varying reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2: a modelling study across 131 countries
In this study, we showed that closing schools alone could decrease transmission by 15% (R ratio 0·85, 95% CI 0·66–1·10) on day 28 and reopening schools could increase transmission by 24% (1·24, 1·00–1·52) on day 28.

*IND: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/10/01/919237103/kids-and-superspreaders-are-driving-covid-19-cases-in-india-huge-study-finds
Kids And Superspreaders Are Driving COVID-19 Cases In India, Huge Study Finds
October 1, 2020
In the largest study ever of transmission patterns for COVID-19, researchers in India tested more than a half-million contacts of 85,000 cases to examine how and to whom the coronavirus is spreading.
The first interesting finding: Children are spreading the virus amongst themselves and also to adults. Second: The greatest risk for infection among the people studied in the two southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh is a long bus or train ride.

* ISR: https://www.timesofisrael.com/health-ministry-report-finds-kids-more-likely-to-catch-virus-than-adults/
Kids more likely to catch COVID-19 than adults, Health Ministry finds
Study presented to ministers shows percentage of positive tests among children stands at 8%, a full 2% higher than with adults; indicates re-opening schools led to infection spike
Children are more likely to contract the coronavirus than adults and can pass it on to others, a major Health Ministry study published Wednesday found, upending claims that had shown young people less likely to catch or spread the disease.
The ministry therefore warned that sending children back to schools at a time of high COVID-19 morbidity “may accelerate the spread of the virus.”

* USA: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2769034#joi200088r30
Association Between Statewide School Closure and COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in the US
In this US population–based time series analysis conducted between March 9, 2020, and May 7, 2020, school closure was associated with a significant decline in both incidence of COVID-19 (adjusted relative change per week, −62%) and mortality (adjusted relative change per week, −58%). In a model derived from this analysis, it was estimated that closing schools when the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was in the lowest quartile compared with the highest quartile was associated with 128.7 fewer cases per 100 000 population over 26 days and with 1.5 fewer deaths per 100 000 population over 16 days.

* USA: https://www.healtheuropa.eu/breakthrough-finding-shows-children-are-silent-spreaders-of-covid-19/102285/
A new study has provided critical data that shows children play a large role in the community spread of COVID-19.
The comprehensive paediatric study, carried out by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Mass General Hospital for Children (MGHfC), shows that children are silent spreaders of COVID-19, showing higher levels of the virus in their airways that hospitalised adults in ICU needing COVID-19 treatment.

* KOR: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/08/28/coronavirus-kids-with-asymptomatic-cases-may-shed-virus-for-weeks-scientists-say.html
Kids with asymptomatic coronavirus infections may have active virus in their bodies for weeks, scientists say

* KOR: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-1315_article
Abstract: We analyzed reports for 59,073 contacts of 5,706 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) index patients reported in South Korea during January 20–March 27, 2020. Of 10,592 household contacts, 11.8% had COVID-19. Of 48,481 nonhousehold contacts, 1.9% had COVID-19. Use of personal protective measures and social distancing reduces the likelihood of transmission.

* USA: https://www.sciencealert.com/paediatricians-explain-what-we-know-about-children-who-get-covid-19

* USA: https://theconversation.com/kids-are-bigger-coronavirus-spreaders-than-many-doctors-realized-heres-how-schools-can-lower-the-risk-144562

* USA: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6931e1.htm?s_cid=mm6931e1_w
SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Infection Among Attendees of an Overnight Camp — Georgia, June 2020

* CHI: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6498/1481.full

* USA: https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamhaseltine/2020/07/31/new-evidence-suggests-young-children-spread-covid-19-more-efficiently-than-adults/

* ITA: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.16.20127357v1?rss=1

* USA: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/2768952?utm_source=undefined&utm_campaign=content-shareicons&utm_content=article_engagement&utm_medium=social&utm_term=073020#.XyNyImjnx-k.email

* USA: https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-children-study/a-54749938
Asymptomatic children can spread coronavirus for weeks, study finds. New US studies show viral loads of the coronavirus are especially high among children and youths, who can unknowingly spread it for weeks. What could that mean for schools trying to reopen?

* USA: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/08/looking-at-children-as-the-silent-spreaders-of-sars-cov-2/
In the most comprehensive study of COVID-19 pediatric patients to date, researchers provide critical data showing that children play a larger role in the community spread of COVID-19 than previously thought. Study found extremely high levels of SARS-CoV-2 in children’s airways.

* USA: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6937e3.htm?s_cid=mm6937e3_w
september 2020: 12 otrok v vrtcu
Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 Outbreaks Associated with Child Care Facilities — Salt Lake City, Utah, April–July 2020
Children aged ≥10 years have been shown to transmit SARS-CoV-2 in school settings.
Twelve children acquired COVID-19 in child care facilities. Transmission was documented from these children to at least 12 (26%) of 46 nonfacility contacts (confirmed or probable cases). One parent was hospitalized. Transmission was observed from two of three children with confirmed, asymptomatic COVID-19.
What are the implications for public health practice?
SARS-CoV-2 Infections among young children acquired in child care settings were transmitted to their household members.

Otroci niso prenašalci

* ITA: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666776221000697
A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of the role of schools in the SARS-CoV-2 second wave in Italy, April 2021
Interpretation: This analysis does not support a role for school opening as a driver of the second COVID-19 wave in Italy, a large European country with high SARS-CoV-2 incidence.

* NED: https://www.rivm.nl/en/novel-coronavirus-covid-19/children-and-covid-19
Worldwide, relatively few children have been reported with COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment is conducting research on the role of children in the spread of the virus.

* SWI: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/146/2/e20201576
Abstract: Since the onset of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, children have been less affected than adults in terms of severity1–3 and frequency, accounting for <2% of the cases.2–5 Unlike with other viral respiratory infections, children do not seem to be a major vector of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, with most pediatric cases described inside familial clusters6 and no documentation of child-to-child or child-to-adult transmission

* FRA: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10096-020-03900-0
Abstract: Previous reports have suggested that children are less affected than adults by SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses between February 27, 2020, and March 14, 2020, and mortality among positive patients in Marseille university hospitals. Of 4050 tested individuals, 228 were positive. Deaths occurred in 2/99 documented cases (both > 85 year-old). Children were majorly asymptomatic. Incidence increased by 7.4-fold between 1–5 and 45–65 years then decreased. It was significantly lower among 0–1 year- (0%) and 1–5 (1.1%) and 5–10 (3.6%)-year-old children than among subjects > 18 years (6.5%). Viral loads did not differ between children and adults. Children may not contribute significantly to virus circulation.

* AUS: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02973-3
29 OCTOBER 2020 Why schools probably aren’t COVID hotspots
Young children are unlikely to spread the virus — but older kids are more at risk, say researchers.

* SPA: https://biocomsc.upc.edu/en/shared/20201002_report_136.pdf (https://www.npr.org/2020/10/21/925794511/were-the-risks-of-reopening-schools-exaggerated?t=1604555447424)
02-10-2020 Analysis: Re-opening schools in times of pandemics (III). A first evaluation, three weeks later. Effect of the re-opening in the global incidence:
If schools had acted as amplifiers of the contagions, we should already observe an effect on the global incidence.
At first view, re-opening the schools has not significantly modified the trend in any Autonomous Community.
As shown in Figure 3, last two weeks we observe a decrease in the A14 ratios in most cases, suggesting no
effect of re-opening the schools in terms of global incidence.
Nowhere, the research found, was there a spike that coincided with reopening: “What we found is that the school [being opened] makes absolutely no difference,” Álvarez told NPR.

* USA: https://www.npr.org/2020/10/21/925794511/were-the-risks-of-reopening-schools-exaggerated?t=1604555447424
October 21, 2020 … And while coronavirus spread is relatively high in the state, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Sydnee Dickson believes that schools are not, for the most part, driving spread.

* USA: https://news.yale.edu/2020/10/16/child-care-not-associated-spread-covid-19-yale-study-finds)
october 16, 2020 … Child care not associated with spread of COVID-19, Yale study finds